Governor of states of India
Under the Constitution of India, State Government runs in similar ways as Central Government. Like the Union Government, the State Governments are also organised on the parliamentary pattern.The Governor is the chief executive of a State in India. The powers and functions of the Governor of Indian State resembles that of the President of the Union Government. The Governor acts on the advice of the Council of Ministers.
Governors exist in the states while lieutenant-governors exist in union territories and in the National Capital Territory of Delhi. Governor acts as the nominal head whereas the real power lies in the hand of the chief ministers of the states and the chief minister’s Council of Minister.
Eligibility for being a Governor of state
Article 157 and Article 158 of the constitution of India talks about this.
A governor must:
- be a citizen of India.
- be at least thirty-five (35) years old.
- not be a member of the either house of the parliament or house of the state legislature.
- not hold any other office of profit.
Both governors and lieutenant-governors are appointed by the President of India for a term of 5 years.
A governor can be removed from his office by–
- Dismissal by the president
- Resignation by the governor
Powers of Governor of a State
Under the Constitution of India, the Governor of a State possesses wide powers and functions – executive, legislative, financial and judicial.
Executive: All executive actions of the State are taken in the name of the Governor.The power is exercised by governor or through his subordinates.
Following are executive functions of Governor-
- To appoint the Chief Minister of the State. Other ministers are also appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The ministers including the Chief Minister hold office during the pleasure of the Governor.
- To appoint higher offices of states, also Advocate-General and the members of the State Public Service Commission.He also sees the appointment of judges of High Court.
- To administer the welfare schemes for schedule caste, schedule tribes and other backward class.
Like the President of the Union, the Governor has no diplomatic or military power.
Legislative: Governor is an integral part of the State Legislature. In some States, we have unicameral legislation( the State Legislature consists of the Governor and one House, the Legislative Assembly), while in others its bicameral legislation( consists of the Governor and the two Chambers known as the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council).
Following legislative powers are vested upon Governor-
- To summon and discontinue the Houses of the State Legislature. He can also dissolve the Lower House—the Legislative Assembly—before the expiry of its term.
- To commence the first session of state legislature.
- To nominate one member to Legislature Assembly from the Anglo-Indian Community and also members to the Legislative Council (where it exists) from the persons who have acquired special knowledge in art, literature, science, social service and co-operative movement.
- To give his assent to bills passed in state legislature, A bill cannot become an act without consent of Governor.
He may withhold his assent from the bill. If the bill is again passed by the House or Houses of the State Legislature, the Governor is to give assent to the bill. He may also reserve certain bill for the assent of the President.
- Governor may issue an Ordinance when state legislature is not in function.
Following are financial powers of a Governor-
- No money-bill can be originated in the State Legislature without the recommendation of the Governor.
- Governor lays the budget before the State Legislature.
- No proposals for taxation or expenditure can be made without the consent of the Governor.
Judicial: Similar to President of India, Governor can also exercises judicial powers.
Following are judicial powers vested to Governor-
- He can grant pardons, reprieves or remissions of punishment to person convicted by courts of law.
- As mentioned before, he also looks through appointment of judges.