Cauvery River Water Dispute
The peninsular rivers are depended on the annual monsoon. So their flow is dependent on the success/failure of monsoon.
Since monsoon is irregular,states have been sharing the river waters have come under extra pressure to save their farmers, among which, the already heightened battle is the Cauvery water dispute between Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.
The river Cauvery has been shared by the states under 2 agreements – The Interstate agreements of 1872 and 1924. But,in late 1960s when Karnataka wanted to build 4 new reservoirs in the tributaries of Cauvery.The Planning commission did not approve to give funds and neither did the Central government.But Karnataka state went ahead with the building of the reservoirs with its own funds.
These reservoirs were
This diverted some of the water of Cauvery due to which Tamil Nadu protested. It directed the Centre to create a Tribunal.But since the Centre did not create one, Tamilnadu moved the SC to order the centre. The tribunal was finally formed in 1990.
But,Article 262 says neither the Supreme Court nor any court shall exercise jurisdiction in water dispute between states.while Supreme Court commented that it can however order the Centre to create a Tribunal which it is supposed to do so under the Art.262 and the Interstate Water Disputes Act,1956.
Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal(CWDT) was formed which with shares of water in following states (in tmcft)
Both Karnataka and Tamilnadu contested this CWDT order in the Supreme Court via Special Leave Petitions (SLPs), which are still pending in court.
In 2012 when flow in Cauvery was low, Karnataka refused to release water.CWDT did not come up with guideline during such situation.
Condition on TN side-
Samba crop growers are mainly dependent on Cauvery river. Irrigation is the main water source in the area. So their livelihood in danger.
The government not wanting to notify the final order of CWDT is also agitating, as there seems to be no end to the problem.
Condition on Karnataka side-
Low monsoons, so low flow in Cauvery. Water not enough for their own farmers.
Very unstable political situation in Karnataka with 3 CMs changing.
So Cauvery being a very sensitive issue nobody wants to give it up easily.